There are different types of dental and oral diseases. In this article we will discuss the commonly occurring oral and dental conditions.
1) Dental Caries(Tooth Decay)
Dental caries or tooth decay is the most commonly occurring dental disease. Dental caries is multifactorial and is the most common cause for tooth pain. It is mainly caused by acids produced by oral bacteria that acts on dietary sugar. Predominant factors involved in the the initiation and progression of dental caries include bad oral hygiene habits, amount and frequency of refined sugar consumption, morphology of tooth structure. Symptoms vary from no discomfort to severe pain and referred pain to adjacent organs depending on the extent of progression. Deep decay may also lead to the development of swelling and abscess(pus) formation. Depending on the stage of decay, treatment stratergy may include, decay removal and filling
( restoration), root canal treatment, and extraction(removal) in some cases.
2) Periodontitis(Gum Disease)
Diseases of the gum(gingiva) and tissues surrounding the tooth(peri dental tissue) is the second most common oral-dental condition. It is mainly an inflammatory condition caused by the accumulation of bacteria around the tooth in the form of dental plaque and calculus(tartar).Depending on the stage, the signs vary from reddish gums, bleeding while brushing, bad breath and loose teeth. Maintaining a good oral hygiene is essential for a heathy gum tissue.Treatment mainly involves the eradication of bacterial load in the form of professional cleaning(scaling and root planing), with advanced stages requiring surgical intervention.
3) Malocclusion(Tooth Misalignment)
There are different types of tooth misalignment in the form of crowding, spacing(excess gap between teeth), rotated tooth, protruded or intruded tooth. Some individuals may also have noticeable jaw discrepancy. Common causes for misalignment include childhood oral habits like finger sucking, mouth breathing, tongue thrusting(reverse swallow, tongue protrusion), failure of deciduous(milk) tooth to exfoliate(fall) at the right time. Early detection and correct intervention entails in better outcome.
4) Impacted Tooth
Tooth impaction is the condition where a tooth has failed to erupt to its usual position in the jaw. Some impacted tooth may cause pain and needs to be removed.
5) Dental Traumatic Injuries
Injuries to tooth may occur following road traffic accidents, in contact sports, accidental fall, etc. Depending of the intensity of the trauma, the clinical presentation may vary from chipped tooth, fracture in surrounding bone, tooth mobility, soft tissue bleeding and swelling, avulsion of tooth(knocked out tooth).
These are some of the common dental disorders. Other conditions include lesions of the soft tissues of lip and cheek , oral manifestations of systemic disease, oral cancer, jaw joint related problems.